Virginia Toy is a New Zealand geologist who studies fault zones and earthquakes in New Zealand, Japan and Ecuador. This method can even indicate rocks rich in high-pressure water, the source of hot springs like those at Hanmer Springs. The Alpine Fault • Running about 600km up the spine of the South Island, the Alpine Fault is the on-land boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. The Wairarapa Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. It is a dextral strike-slip fault with a component of uplift to the northwest as expressed by the Rimutaka Range.  A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. We've known about the Alpine Fault for around 80 years. Scroll down to discover how! , Large ruptures can also trigger earthquakes on the faults continuing north from the Alpine Fault. Holes were drilled for explosives, and when the explosives were set off, a multi-channel seismograph recorded the seismic waves. They run along the northwest edge of the island, which is exactly where the Alpine Fault is. Travelers talk about “tectonic plates” (5 reviews) “fault line” (4 reviews) “continental plates” (3 reviews) Improve This Listing. Alpine Fault. Vous vous demandez certainement où je veux en venir, et surtout quel est le rapport avec notre petite Alpined'essai. Subject: Structural geology. Le cisaillement sud armoricain  dans la partie sud du Massif armoricain. These large earthquakes don’t happen very often – the last one was nearly 300 years ago. [Chapter Break] After their groundbreaking paper on the Alpine Fault, Willett was posted to Invercargill and Wellman to another wartime project at dâUrville Island. A right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. When tectonic forces overcome this locking, the fault slips, jumping up to a distance of 8 metres at a time.  This, along with isostatic constraints, has kept the Southern Alps less than 4000 m. Uplift on the Alpine Fault has led to the exposure of deep metamorphic rocks near the fault within the Southern Alps. ... Each type is the outcome of different forces pushing or pulling on the crust, causing rocks to slide up, down or past each other. Three feature sets are delineated. Alpine climate, climate that is typical to higher altitudes; Alpine tundra, a type of natural region or biome; Alpine orogeny, in geology; Alpine Fault, a geological fault running nearly the entire length of New Zealand's South Island; Biology. In this recording, Alpine fault drilling, part of Te Papa’s Science Express programme, hear about the deepest fault drilling ever done in New Zealand. In addition, an earlier earthquake was identified to have occurred between 887 and 965. An earlier event at around 1600 AD can be recognised throughout the study area, and this is the most recent event in the trench locations north of the Haupiri River. of the Alpine Fault R.M. Ultrasonic image logs acquired in the DFDP‐2B borehole yield the first continuous, subsurface description of the transition from schist to mylonite in the hangingwall of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, to a depth of 818 m below surface. The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. The Southern Alps had not yet formed and most of New Zealand was covered in water. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. Between 25 and 12 million years ago the movement on the proto-Alpine Fault was exclusively strike-slip. For every one unit increase in magnitude (e.g. Here the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a year. Pourtant, ce n'est pas la première fois que je l'essaye.  It was led by New Zealand geologists Rupert Sutherland, John Townsend and Virginia Toy and involves an international team from New Zealand, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Part 2 of Alpine Fault in Profile. Into the Night 05:10 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 2.  The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. Geologists working on Project AF8 believe that the next severe earthquake on the Alpine Fault is most likely to be a rupture that begins in South Westland and “unzips” northwards and will … This short documentary is included in the Iraena's Ashes Digipack. Exemples de décrochements senestres  The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. She is one of the leaders of the Deep Fault Drilling Project of New Zealand's Alpine Fault, and was a research scientist on the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project. This is unlike the North Island boundary, where a subduction zone is under water off the east coast. Advisers: Sibson, R. Abstract: The section of the Alpine fault between the Cook and Karangarua Rivers provides further information on the structure of the fault zone. . It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. . The Hope Fault is thought to represent the primary continuation of the Alpine Fault. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. The Wellington Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand.  At the same time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km (300 miles) lateral displacement on the Alpine Fault. The horizontal movement along the fault is not smooth, as both sides are locked together. The 1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake was a devastating magnitude 7.5 Mw earthquake that struck near the town of Waipukurau on 23 February 1863. Researchers are studying the Alpine Fault to investigate past earthquakes, mountain formation and the structure of the Earth’s crust. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. But this should not lead one to overlook the fact that the Alpine Fault, so recognised, may occur in a wide zone of intense faulting, slicing, and brecciation-the Alpine Fault Zone. Considering the Alpine Fault's large magnitude (M w ∼8.0) earthquakes, the presence of low-friction material at depth in this fault zone is unlikely and would present a mechanical paradox (Sutherland et al., 2000, 2007; Beavan et al., 1999; Norris and Cooper, 2000). It is a dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip fault with variable amounts of vertical movement causing uplift to the northwest, as expressed by a series of ranges. In the middle the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary and has both dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip movement and uplift on the southeastern side.  The 1717 quake appears to have involved a rupture along nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of the southern two-thirds of the fault. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. The results suggest that ductile localization due to overlying faults may account for a large proportion of the strain observed in exhumed mylonite zones. Richard H. Sibson from the same university also used the Alpine Fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence. Movement along the Alpine Fault is deforming the microcontinent of, Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, "Alpine Fault / Major Faults in New Zealand / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home – GNS Science", "New study says Alpine Fault quake interval shorter than thought: GNS Science", "Timing of late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand", "An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa", "1. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[ clarification needed ] to its displacement.   One of the goals of the project was to use the deformed rocks from the fault zone to determine its resistance to stress. In earthquake terms, the 850 kilometres (530 mi) long fault is remarkably consistent, rupturing on average every 330 years, at intervals ranging from 140 years to 510 years. We show that stresses transferred to the mid-crust during an Alpine Fault type earthquake may exert a first-order effect on localization in underlying ductile crust.  In outcrop the fault zone is overlain by mylonites which formed at depth and have been uplifted by the fault. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). An earthquake on the Alpine Fault is likely to be one of the most significant disasters that could affect Selwyn district. In New Zealand they are formed along the Alpine fault by earthquakes.  So while earthquakes are an important part of Māori oral tradition, no stories have been passed down about South Island earthquakes. , Richard Norris and Alan Cooper from the Department of Geology, University of Otago conducted extensive research on the structure and petrology of the Alpine Fault respectively throughout the later 20th and early 21st centuries. That's before satellite photographs or plate tectonics.  However, it is now inferred by multiples lines of evidence that the Alpine Fault ruptures creating major earthquakes about every few hundred years. This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. Geologically, this is a high probability. There have been no major earthquakes on the main portion of it. What are the challenges of putting a borehole into a fault? The geology of New Zealand is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate and Pacific Plates. Source: BBC Horizon (no audio) Alpine Fault Geology. In the South Island of New Zealand, the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates can be seen on land. The alpine fault is located in New Zeland.  Originally this regional increase in grade was inferred to be from frictional heating along the fault not uplift of deeper geological sequences. How will the next Alpine Fault earthquake compare to the M7.1 Darfield earthquake of 4 September 2010? The eroded material has formed the Canterbury Plains. This is not a regular pattern, but enough to suggest there is a high probability of a large earthquake in the next 50 years. The work involves scientists from several disciplines working together, using different methods, such as: Using techniques like these, scientists such as Mark Yetton of the University of Canterbury have found out that major earthquakes happened on the central Alpine Fault in 1100, 1450, 1620 and 1717. There is dextral strike-slip motion as well as convergence between the Australian and Pacific plates. This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault's plane per year.    District councils along the West Coast and in Canterbury have commissioned studies and begun preparations for an anticipated large earthquake on the Alpine Fault. She then worked as a research associate professor in geology and associate dean (international) in the Division of Sciences at the University of Otago. Type: Strike-slip fault: Movement: Dextral/convergent, east side up: Age: Miocene-Holocene: Orogeny: Kaikoura: The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. Project type: PGDipSci. Snow on the mountains of the Pacific plate contrasts with the lower land of the Australian plate. The Alpine Fault forms a "transform" boundary between the Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate. Avec notre A110 d'un week-end, pour la première fois, j'ai eu l'impression de prendre le temps avec une voiture. Le temps de l'apprécier. In the new study, the interval between earthquakes ranged from 160 to 350 years and the probability of an earthquake occurring in the following 50 years was estimated at 29 per cent. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate.   It was a $2.5 million international research project designed to drill 1.3 km to the fault plan in two months. Hours Today: 9:30 AM - 6:00 PM . GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. The fault mover 30mm a year! The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. You can pick out the line of the Alpine Fault on this satellite image of the South Island. 1.1 Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault . Read more. Located at 43°53'44.58"S 169°31'28.09"E, it runs the entire length of New Zealand's South Island, thus along the western edge of the Southern Alps. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that broke away from the Gondwanan supercontinent about 83 million years ago. He reasoned that further up stream there must be a boundary between the two rock types – but what was it? Curious Minds is a Government initiative jointly led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. One indication that things have not always been quite so calm on the Alpine fault is the presence of a rock type called psuedotachylite, which is thought to form either during an earthquake or with a meteor impact.  The Alpine Fault is not a single structure but often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components. Langridge J.G. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) was a rapid-response scientific expedition that drilled oceanfloor boreholes through the fault-zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Tours are 2.5 hours, and require walking. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). Type: EP Release date: November 2005 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet There have been no major earthquakes on the Alpine Fault in historic times, its southern and northern offshoots have, however, experienced sizable earthquakes: In 2012, GNS Science researchers published an 8000-year timeline of 24 major earthquakes on the (southern end of the) fault from sediments at Hokuri Creek, near Lake McKerrow in north Fiordland.   Also near the surface the fault can have multiple rupture zones. See this Interactive map of the Alpine Fault and links to a virtual field trip on the University of Otago Geology website. St. Andreas Transform Fault Alpine Fault New Zealand The types of transform fault that are always the longest Oceanic Transform Fault Continental Transform Fault EXPLORING THE PLANETS 3 The crust type and general of thickness of the crust.  Newer research carried out by the University of Otago and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation revised the dates of the pre-1717 earthquakes to between 1535 and 1596 (instead of 1620), 1374 and 1405 (instead of 1430), and 1064 and 1120 (instead of 1100). ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", 2003 – Fiordland, estimated magnitude = 7.1. The Alpine Fault runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, and is one of the world’s major geological features.  , In 1940 Harold Wellman found that the Southern Alps were associated with a fault line approximately 650 km (400 miles) long. using GPS to study small movements of nearby minor faults, and to measure growth of the Alps, using seismic data to find out how the many minor earthquakes in the area are linked to minor faults and the main Alpine Fault. The rock contains bands of melted rock that seeps into fractures. Open Now. Guided educational tours to the natural exposure of the Alpine fault, at Gaunt Creek, near Whataroa, South Westland. This includes mylonites and the Alpine Schist, which increases in metamorphic grade towards the fault. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by GNS Science, GNS Science accepts … Faille nord-anatolienne. Whole forests that have grown back after an earthquake can be dated, too. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. The moment magnitude of the earthquake has been estimated as 8.2, the most powerful recorded in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. The 1843 Whanganui earthquake occurred on 8 July at 16:45 local time with an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Mw scale. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a … There have been no major historical earthquakes on the Alpine Fault. The fault plane is usually vertical and can be horizontal. The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. The name "Southern Alps" generally refers to the entire range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it. This PDF provides a summary from the West Coast Reginal Council on Alpine Fault research past and present, including details of Mark Yetton’s methods. Berryman et al., 2012). A transform fault is a type of strike-slip fault at the boundary of two plates. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. Because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine Fault creeps without making large earthquakes. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a depth of 9 km (5.6 mi). The Alpine Fault quickly became accepted as a notable feature of the geology of New Zealand, and by 1948 was included on standard geological maps. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. The surface rupture has extended into the north section of the fault as far as the Haupiri River area, which is 25 km northeast of the Alpine Fault junction with the Hope Fault. Other New Zealand universities, GNS Science and overseas scientists are also interested in the Alpine Fault. The 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake occurred at 10:50 pm NZMT on 9 March. Elisabeth, your guide, has a good knowledge of the Alpine Fault, and to be able to straddle 2 tectonic plates was a real moment to remember. Wellman became a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1954, and was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal and Prize in 1957 and the McKay Hammer Award in 1959. It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. The Alpine Fault intersects the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand about four miles north of Dale Point at the entrance to Milford Sound; moraine 011 the west of the fault has beeili faulted against Fiordlancl Gneiss' on the east, A well defined fault trace was followed from the air from the south side of The epicentre was approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) west of Hanmer. The alpine fault runs along the west side of the South Island of New Zealand and is "one of the longest, straightest, and fastest-moving plate boundary transform faults on Earth."(eg. This set of faults, which includes the Wairau Fault, the Hope Fault, the Awatere Fault, and the Clarence Fault, transfer displacement between the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi subduction zone to the north. If you want to do something different and have a passing interest in geology, then this is a âmust doâ tour. It had a maximum perceived intensity of VII (severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale. . How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? The Clarence Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. New research has revealed that some of the West Coast is sandwiched between enormous offshore fault lines and the Alpine Fault. Well that moves us on to our 3rd boundary type! The Alpine fault is the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. New Zealand's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent evolution have created a unique fossil record and modern ecology. New research from Victoria University of Wellington could prompt a shift in thinking about the South Island’s Alpine Fault. It has been suggested that the surface rupture formed by this event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults. Exposures of the fault have been revealed in a recent slips at Havelock Creek. 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